Surgelare o Congelare: che Differenza c’è

Inserito in Casa, Economia domestica | Scritto venerdì, 17 gennaio 2014 | Autore Licia Falduzzi | 2 Commenti

Che differenza c'è tra surgelato e congelato - Come riconosce e distinguere un prodotto surgelato da un prodotto congelato

surgelare o congelare: che differenza c'è

Potrebbero sembrare sinonimi, ma non lo sono. Parliamo della surgelazione e della congelazione degli alimenti, due ben distinte tecniche di conservazione dei cibi che molto spesso, però, vengono confuse tra loro.

Il surgelamento o surgelazione, regolato in Italia da una precisa normativa (Decreto legislativo 27 gennaio 1992, n. 110), è la tecnica di conservazione dei cibi che garantisce il rispetto delle caratteristiche fisiche, chimiche e organolettiche degli alimenti, e che permette al consumatore di mangiare un prodotto paragonabile a quello fresco.

La legislazione vigente prevede che il surgelamento debba avvenire ad una specifica temperatura e in uno specifico e ristretto lasso di tempo. I cibi, cioè, affinché mantengano le loro proprietà nutritive, devono essere portati a temperature estremamente basse (comprese tra i -18°C e i -40°C) in un tempo massimo di 4 ore. Inoltre, una volta così surgelati, gli alimenti devono essere venduti in confezioni originali chiuse dal fabbricante, preparati con materiale idoneo a proteggere il prodotto dalle contaminazioni microbiche o di altro genere e con stampigliate all’esterno precise indicazioni relative alla conservazione e alla procedura ottimale di scongelamento.

Solo gli alimenti in buone condizioni igieniche, di adeguata qualità merceologica e assolutamente freschi possono essere sottoposti a surgelazione.

Inoltre, prima di essere surgelati, i cibi sono sottoposti ad una adeguata preparazione: vengono lavati, sbucciati, ridotti in piccoli pezzi ed eventualmente precucinati. Gli ortaggi vengono sottoposti a scottatura al fine di inattivare gli enzimi che potrebbero alterare la qualità dell’alimento. Durante questa fase è consentito l’uso di additivi, esclusi i conservanti.

Dopo essere stati congelati i cibi vengono confezionati. Il confezionamento deve garantire l’integrità dell’alimento, deve essere aperto solo dal consumatore e deve riportare tutte le indicazioni previste per legge riguardo i modi e i tempi di conservazione, e le istruzioni per lo scongelamento ed il consumo.

La normativa prevede anche l’obbligo di rispettare scrupolosamente la catena del freddo, che non deve mai essere interrotta dall’iniziale surgelamento fino al momento dell’acquisto. Ciò significa che, durante tutto il ciclo di vita, il prodotto surgelato deve essere mantenuto a temperature uguali o inferiori a -18°C.

Il congelamento o congelazione, invece, è il sistema di conservazione degli alimenti tramite il freddo sottozero di tipo domestico o industriale (applicato generalmente, in quest’ultimo caso, per grosse pezzature).

Nella congelazione gli alimenti vengono portati, in tempi lunghi, a temperature tra i -8°C e i -20°C e si conservano a temperature comprese tra i -10°C e i -30°C.

Questo differente processo tra surgelazione e congelazione dà vita ad un prodotto molto diverso dal punto di vista nutritivo ed organolettico. Perché?

Quando un alimento viene sottoposto ad un lento processo di raffreddamento (com’è il caso del congelamento) forma dei macrocristalli di ghiaccio all’interno delle sue cellule che a poco a poco si ingrossano fino ad arrivare a rompere le pareti delle cellule stesse e creando danni alla struttura biologica dell’alimento. Ciò è quello che accade ogni volta che depositiamo nel nostro congelatore alimenti freschi come, ad esempio, la carne.

La formazione di cristalli di ghiaccio danneggia i tessuti dell’alimento e comporta la perdita di liquido quando il prodotto viene scongelato; questo liquido è quello contenuto nelle cellule che si sono rotte durante il congelamento. Nel caso della carne, per esempio, questa perdita di liquido corrisponde alla perdita di importanti componenti, come il ferro e le vitamine.

Il congelamento, inoltre, non blocca al 100%, se non a temperature molto basse, l’attività delle cellule vive e degli enzimi, con conseguente deterioramento nel tempo della qualità originaria del prodotto.

A differenza del congelamento, la surgelazione (che porta rapidamente il prodotto ad una bassissima temperatura) non danneggia la struttura biologica dell’alimento e comporta una minore perdita di liquido al momento dello scongelamento e, in genere, una migliore conservazione delle caratteristiche nutrizionali ed organolettiche dell’alimento fresco.

Il mantenimento della temperatura al di sotto di – 18°C rallenta, inoltre, le reazioni chimiche ed enzimatiche e blocca quasi del tutto lo sviluppo microbico.

Quali alimenti possono essere surgelati

Gli alimenti che possono essere sottoposti a surgelazione appartengono alle seguenti categorie: carne e suoi derivati, pesce, verdure e ortaggi, prodotti lattiero-caseari e alimenti precotti.

Come capire se non è stata rispettata la catena del freddo

Un prodotto ha subito sbalzi termici quando:

  • presenta brina in superficie. Ciò significa che potrebbe aver subito un parziale scongelamento e che potrebbe essere danneggiato e anche inquinato;
  • presenta blocchi compatti. Ciò significa che c’è stato un parziale scongelamento e poi un ricongelamento che ha permesso la formazione di agglomerati di pezzi;
  • presenta liquidi, anche congelati, all’interno della confezione. Anche questo è indice dell’avvenuto scongelamento in una delle fasi di realizzazione del prodotto.


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